Tallinn

Estonia, including the capital Tallinn, was invaded and occupied by Russia in 1940. Following the invasion a political purge started, with deportations and executions. However, after Germany attacked Russia in the summer of 1941, the Russians pulled back from Estonia, implementing ”scorched earth” tactics.

Estonia became part of the German Reichskommissariat Ostland and as a consequence, all men were forced into the German military.

As the war progressed and the Germans began to retreat, Estonia and Talinn were prepared to be defended. Most of the defensive structures were field positions, but machine gun bunkers were also built.

The Russians launched their attacks in February 1944, finally expelling the Germans by September 1944, when Russia again occupied Estonia.

Although it was determined that the Baltic countries should remain independent after the war, the Russian occupation continued until 1991.