Festung Hoek van Holland

The city of Hoek van Holland is situated at the entrance to the port of Rotterdam. The location was strategically important for the Germans and the whole area was strongly fortified throughout the war.

The name "Festung (fortress)" was only used by the Germans if they considered a area to be impregnable.

At the northern end of the town, overlooking the harbour entrance, a command bunker was built and also several crew bunkers. It was from this command bunker that fighting in the event of an Allied invasion should be controlled.

South of the command bunker there was an old Dutch gun battery which the Germans had taken over and renamed Batterie Vineta. In 1943, the four 150 mm. guns that before stood in the open ring position, were moved into each of their own built pillbox. The fire control post was of Dutch origin and around the dunes were located ammunition bunkers, crew bunkers, a hospital bunker, Air defense bunker and two gun bunkers to protect the backside of the gun battery.

Because of a massive port expansion after the war, most of all bunkers in Hoek van Holland were destroyed. This was particularly all bunkers in Navy gun battery Rozenburg, which was equipped with three 280 mm. guns from the German battleship Gneisenau. These were mounted individually in armored turrets, as in gun battery Großer Kurfürst, and located on the Peninsula De Beer just south of the harbor.